Ginseng (American ginseng, Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean red ginseng, Panax ginseng: Panax spp., including P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius, excluding Eleutherococcus senticosus)
- GlucoseGlucose: In clinical trials, ginseng reduced blood glucose levels (39; 19; 40; 41; 42; 43; 38; 44). However, this is an area of controversy, because different species of ginseng may exhibit different effects (45; 46), hyperglycemia has also been reported (38), and the experimental data are inconsistent in this area (25; 47; 42; 38; 48).
- LipidsLipids: In animals and hyperlipidemic humans, oral administration of ginseng reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and nonessential fatty acids, while increasing levels of HDL cholesterol (260; 509). However, a lack of an effect on plasma lipids was found in a study on type 2 diabetics and erectile dysfunction (41; 332).
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