- Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1)Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1): In humans, downregulation of ASS1 caused by tumors decreased arginine synthesis and caused arginine auxotrophy (364; 365).
- Branched-chain amino acidsBranched-chain amino acids: In animals, arginine decreased plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (287).
- CholesterolCholesterol: In human research, dietary increases in L-arginine resulted in decreased levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride and increased levels of HDL cholesterol (127; 340; 358).
- CreatinineCreatinine: In animals, arginine increased plasma creatinine (334).
- GlucoseGlucose: In diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, L-arginine resulted in improved glucose profiles and fructosamine over exercise alone (106; 127), decreased glucose production (108), improved insulin sensitivity (109), and increased whole-body glucose disposal (111). Plasma glucose increased in one human study (184).
- SodiumSodium: In humans, use of L-arginine reduced renal sodium excretion with a low salt intake and increased renal excretion with a high salt intake (308; 240).
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