- CalciumCalcium: Fruit consumption has been shown to reduce net acid excretion (NAE) and urinary calcium excretion; compared to baseline, NAE increased after control treatment but decreased after fresh or processed apple treatment (p=0.041) (83). Calcium excretion increased with all treatments, but the increase was the least for fresh apple and applesauce (p=0.024).
- GlucoseGlucose: In human research, the fiber in apples decreased blood glucose (29).
- LipidsLipids: Consumption of apple fiber and gum arabic has been shown to lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults (81; 18).
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