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Arabinogalactan



Interactions

Arabinogalactan/Drug Interactions:
  • Amphotericin BAmphotericin B: A conjugate of amphotericin B-arabinogalactan increased immune response in vitro over amphotericin B alone (5; 6). Arabinogalactan alone had no effect.
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: Antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculatain vitro was at least partially attributed to arabinogalactan proteins (15). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive effects with antimicrobial agents.
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: Antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculatain vitro was at least partially attributed to arabinogalactan proteins (15). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive effects with antifungal agents.
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: In humans, arabinogalactan has been shown to have no effect on glucose and insulin (33; 27; 34). However, increased plant fibers may play a role in glucose or insulin metabolism and thus an interaction with agents that modify blood glucose should not be ruled out.
  • Antigout agentsAntigout agents: In vitro, Larix laricina (a source of arabinogalactan) exhibited xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (22). Thus, it is possible that arabinogalactan may have additive effects with antigout agents.
  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: In humans, the effect of arabinogalactan on blood lipids has been investigated with no effect reported in published clinical trials (33; 27). Until more is known, it is possible that arabinogalactan has additive effects with antilipemic agents.
  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: In vitro, pretreatment with arabinogalactan enhanced natural killer cytotoxicity against K562 tumor cells (41). In animal study, pretreatment with arabinogalactan reduced liver metastases and prolonged survival (42; 43; 44; 45). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive effects with antineoplastic agents.
  • Antituberculosis agentsAntituberculosis agents: As well as plants, arabinogalactans are also found in Mycobacteria, members of which cause tuberculosis and leprosy (7; 8; 9; 10). The role of arabinogalactan and other Mycobacterium cell wall components in antitubercular drug resistance and tuberculosis is discussed in various reviews (40; 46; 47).
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: In vitro, various immunological effects have been attributed to arabinogalactan (28; 14; 29; 19; 30). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive or inhibitory effects with immunomodulators.
  • Nucleotide analogsNucleotide analogs: A conjugate of arabinogalactan and the nucleotide analog adenine arabinoside 5'-monophosphate decreased serum levels of woodchuck hepatitis virus DNA in woodchuck carriers of the virus (16).
  • Renally eliminated drugsRenally eliminated drugs: In humans, dietary fiber including arabinogalactan reduced mean plasma urea in uremic patients (48). Thus, arabinogalactan and renal agents may have additive effects.

Arabinogalactan/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculatain vitro was at least partially attributed to arabinogalactan proteins (15). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive effects with antimicrobial agents.
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: Antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculatain vitro was at least partially attributed to arabinogalactan proteins (15). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive effects with antimicrobial agents.
  • Antigout herbs and supplementsAntigout herbs and supplements: In vitro, Larix laricina (a source of arabinogalactan) exhibited xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (22). Thus, it is possible that arabinogalactan and antigout agents have additive effects.
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In humans, the effect of arabinogalactan on blood lipids has been investigated with no effect reported in published clinical trials (33; 27). Until more is known, it is possible that arabinogalactan has additive effects with antilipemic agents.
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In vitro, pretreatment with arabinogalactan enhanced natural killer cytotoxicity against K562 tumor cells (41). In animal study, pretreatment with arabinogalactan reduced liver metastases and prolonged survival (42; 43; 44; 45). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive effects with antineoplastic agents.
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Theoretically, dietary antioxidants may enhance immunological effects of arabinogalactan. This has not been proven scientifically.
  • Antituberculosis herbs and supplementsAntituberculosis herbs and supplements: Arabinogalactans are found in the cells walls of plants as well as Mycobacteria, members of which cause tuberculosis and leprosy (7; 8; 9; 10). The role of arabinogalactan and other Mycobacterium cell wall components in antitubercular drug resistance and tuberculosis has been discussed in various reviews (35; 46; 47).
  • EchinaceaEchinacea: In humans, a combination of larch arabinogalactan, Echinacea purpurea, and Echinacea augustifolia increased complement properidin and improved SF-36 quality of life scores over arabinogalactan alone, but not over Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea augustifolia alone (2).
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: In humans, arabinogalactan has been found to have no effect on glucose and insulin (33; 27; 34). However, increased plant fibers may play a role in glucose or insulin metabolism and thus an interaction with agents that modify blood glucose should not be ruled out.
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: In vitro, various immunological effects have been attributed to arabinogalactan (28; 14; 29; 19; 30). Thus, arabinogalactan may have additive or inhibitory effects with immunomodulators.
  • MugwortMugwort: Arabinogalactans are found in allergenic pollens from mugwort (11).
  • PrebioticsPrebiotics: Bacteria able to grow on arabinogalactan have been isolated from human feces (4). In vitro, strains of Bifidobacterium longum were able to ferment arabinogalactan (3). This suggests arabinogalactan may have additive effects with prebiotics.
  • ProbioticsProbiotics: Bacteria able to grow on arabinogalactan have been isolated from human feces (4). This suggests arabinogalactan may have additive effects with probiotics.
  • RagweedRagweed: Arabinogalactans are found in allergenic pollens from ragweed (11).
  • Renally eliminated herbs and supplementsRenally eliminated herbs and supplements: In humans, dietary fiber including arabinogalactan reduced mean plasma urea in uremic patients (48). Thus, arabinogalactan and renal agents may have additive effects.

Arabinogalactan/Food Interactions:
  • Arabinogalactan-containing foodsArabinogalactan-containing foods: Consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains, which contain arabinogalactan, may increase arabinogalactan intakes.
  • FiberFiber: Although not shown scientifically, arabinogalactan may have additive effects with other dietary fibers.

Arabinogalactan/Lab Interactions:
  • Complement activityComplement activity: In vitro, the isolated arabinogalactan core of ukonan C, a polysaccharide isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., induced anti-complementary activity (49).
  • Fecal ammoniaFecal ammonia: In healthy humans, arabinogalactan decreased levels of fecal ammonia (27; 20).
  • Fecal anaerobic bacteriaFecal anaerobic bacteria: In healthy humans, arabinogalactan increased levels of total fecal anaerobes (27).
  • Fecal Lactobacillus spp.Fecal Lactobacillus spp.: In healthy humans, arabinogalactan increased levels of Lactobacillus spp. (27).
  • Fecal measurementsFecal measurements: In healthy humans, arabinogalactan had no effect on fecal enzyme activity, transit time, frequency, fecal weight, fecal pH, or short-chain fatty acids (27).
  • Glycemic indicesGlycemic indices: In healthy humans, arabinogalactan had no effect on blood glucose and insulin levels (33; 27; 34).
  • Lipids and lipoproteinsLipids and lipoproteins: In healthy humans, arabinogalactan had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, or apolipoprotein A-I (33; 27).

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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